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Cataract Treatment

Cataract is also known as "the curtain falling on the eye" among the public. It is an eye disease that occurs when the natural eye lens becomes dull and loses its transparency with various stains on its surface. In its initial stages, cataract manifests itself with symptoms such as blurring of near vision and fading of perceived colors. However, as the process progresses, problems in both near and far vision increase.

katarakt-nedir-symptoms-nedir

Cataract is more common in people aged 60 and over due to aging-related reasons. This is because the human eye is the sensory organ most rapidly affected by the aging process. However, the belief that the disease is seen only in older ages does not fully reflect the truth. Because congenital, genetic and environmental factors are also effective in the emergence of certain types of the disease.

It is the eye problem that most commonly causes permanent vision loss in people over the age of 60. Worldwide, cataracts are encountered in approximately 25 million people every year on average. The incidence of the disease is higher in hot regions such as Africa and South America due to the intense effect of sunlight.

What is Cataract?

Cataract is the opacity of the natural eye lens, which allows the light coming into the eye to be transmitted to the retina, losing its transparency. During this process, some chemical changes occur in the structure of the intraocular lens for various reasons. As the disease progresses, vision loss occurs in both near and far vision.

What Causes Cataract?

Changes in the structure of proteins in the eye lens can be seen as the main reason for cataract formation. There are crystalline proteins in the eye lens, which is located just behind the frontmost part of the eye called the iris. Chemical changes may occur in the structure of these proteins for various reasons, and high molecular weight protein clusters are formed. With this change in the texture of the lens, yellow and brown spots occur on the surface of the eye lens. As a result, the eye lens loses its transparency and cataract formation begins.

When it comes to the causes of cataract, it is necessary to mention different factors. The most common cause of cataracts is changes in the structure of the intraocular lens due to aging. Especially if the disease is encountered in people under the age of 50, different underlying causes can be seen. Hereditary causes are also effective in the formation of the disease.

The causes of cataract formation are as follows:

  • Disorders in metabolism such as diabetes
  • Eye traumas resulting from a blow to the eye< /li>
  • Various complications after previous eye surgery
  • Long-term exposure to sunlight without protecting the eye
  • Exposure to radiation for a long period of time
  • < li>Long-term use of cortisone medication

Who Gets Cataracts?

Cataract is generally seen in the elderly. The majority of patients are people over the age of 60. The type that occurs due to aging-related reasons is called centile cataract. Since various environmental factors also play a role in its formation, the disease can also occur at younger ages. There is also a congestive type of the disease that occurs at birth.

Causes of Cataract in Babies and Children

The congenital type of the disease can be seen in newborn babies at birth. In addition, the disease can be encountered during childhood for various reasons. Cataracts in babies and children reasons why it is seen:

  • Genetic causes
  • The mother's illness during pregnancy diseases
  • Various eye traumas experienced in the womb
  • Drugs used by the mother during pregnancy

Do Cataracts Cause Blindness?

Cataract is an eye disease that is seen in an average of 25 million people every year in the world. Cataract, which ranks first among progressive vision losses over the age of 40, does not cause permanent blindness.

What are the Symptoms of Cataract?

Symptoms of cataract in the initial stage are manifested by slight blurring of vision, fading in perceived colors, and dispersion, especially in night lights.

Initial use of stronger ambient lighting and prescription glasses will help improve vision. can contribute. At advanced levels, both near vision and distance vision are severely impaired. In addition, adaptation to light slows down and vision difficulties occur in dim light. Over time, it becomes difficult for the person to carry out daily activities alone.

Cataract symptoms are often as follows:

  • Difficulty in reading< /li>
  • Difficulty in seeing details
  • Slowly decreasing vision
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Double vision
  • Fading and yellowing of colors
  • Frequent changes in eyeglass prescriptions
  • Impairment in night vision
  • Difficulty in driving

Many types of cataract disease develop slowly . Blurred vision, which is one of the early symptoms, is not at a level that causes discomfort to the person. However, if the disease is not treated, it progresses and vision becomes completely blurred. The patient becomes unable to perform daily activities.

Failure to start treatment on time may lead to other diseases such as eye pressure. Such situations increase the risk of permanent vision loss.

cataract symptoms

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How do people with cataracts see?

When we think of the elements of our eye as the elements of a camera, we can think of cataract disease as the smoke of the lens in front of the camera that provides focus. Losing the vividness of colors, blurred vision, being disturbed by bright lights at night, and not being able to see details in dim and dark environments are among the vision disorders experienced by patients.

Cataract patients see the world as blurry and blurred as if they were looking through frosted glass. Sees in pale and pastel tones.

Cataract Diagnosis

Cataract is diagnosed by an eye examination performed by an ophthalmologist. During the examination, it can often be determined whether the patient has a different eye problem. The criteria checked for the diagnosis of the disease are as follows:

  • Is there a significant opacity in the intraocular lens?
  • If there is opacity, does this affect the visual acuity of the patient?< /li>
  • To what extent does surgical intervention provide improvement in improving the quality of vision of the patient?
  • Does the surgical intervention pose any risks for the patient?

The test applied in this context and examinations are as follows:

Visual Acuity Test: With the visual acuity test, the patient's ability to see fine details is measured. The patient is asked to read the shapes and letters listed from largest to smallest from a certain distance.

Biomicroscopic examination (slit lamp examination): The cornea, iris, lens and other elements in the anterior segment of the eye are examined through the biomicroscope.

Tonometry: Cataracted eye lens usually increases eye pressure. Therefore, the patient's eye pressure is measured through tonometry.

Retinal examination: With the retinal examination, the effects of the disease on the retina are measured.

Cataract Treatment

Cataract Surgery

Cataract surgery is the process of removing the patient's natural intraocular lens through various surgical methods and replacing it with an artificial intraocular lens. It is a microsurgical operation.

The operation begins by numbing the eye with drop anesthesia. It is entered into the eye with the help of a micro incision made from the corner of the eye. Cataracts are removed from the eye using various surgical methods. Finally, an artificial lens is placed through another incision instead of the intraocular lens and the operation is completed.

what-is-cataract-symptoms

Intraocular Lens Operation with Phaco Method

The Phaco method is one of the most commonly used surgical methods for permanent treatment. Cataract surgery with the phaco method is an operation that does not require stitches. Sound waves are used to separate the natural intraocular lens.

The recovery period after surgery is fast. The patient is discharged on the same day after the operation. If necessary, the same procedure can be applied to the other eye one day apart.

How to Stop Cataract Progression?

Once a cataract has formed, it is impossible to stop its progression. However, paying attention to some issues can prevent or slow down the formation of the disease.

  • Wearing sunglasses outdoors where sunlight is intense.
  • Eating a diet rich in omega-3.
  • < li>Adopting a diet rich in vegetables and fruits, called the Mediterranean diet.
  • Not smoking, and if so, quitting.
  • Not using cortisone drugs except in cases of necessity.
  • Protecting the eyes against external impacts.

Paying attention to these mentioned measures can slow down the progression of cataracts if the disease is present in the person. Even if the disease is not present in the person, it can prevent the physiological elements that trigger the disease.

what is cataract

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